# Metaprogramming¶

The strongest legacy of Lisp in the Julia language is its metaprogramming support. Like Lisp, Julia is homoiconic: it represents its own code as a data structure of the language itself. Since code is represented by objects that can be created and manipulated from within the language, it is possible for a program to transform and generate its own code. This allows sophisticated code generation without extra build steps, and also allows true Lisp-style macros, as compared to preprocessor “macro” systems, like that of C and C++, that perform superficial textual manipulation as a separate pass before any real parsing or interpretation occurs. Another aspect of metaprogramming is reflection: the ability of a running program to dynamically discover properties of itself. Reflection emerges naturally from the fact that all data types and code are represented by normal Julia data structures, so the structure of the program and its types can be explored programmatically just like any other data.

## Expressions and Eval¶

Julia code is represented as a syntax tree built out of Julia data structures of type Expr. This makes it easy to construct and manipulate Julia code from within Julia, without generating or parsing source text. Here is the definition of the Expr type:

type Expr
head::Symbol
args::Array{Any,1}
typ
end


The head is a symbol identifying the kind of expression, and args is an array of subexpressions, which may be symbols referencing the values of variables at evaluation time, may be nested Expr objects, or may be actual values of objects. The typ field is used by type inference to store type annotations, and can generally be ignored.

There is special syntax for “quoting” code (analogous to quoting strings) that makes it easy to create expression objects without explicitly constructing Expr objects. There are two forms: a short form for inline expressions using : followed by a single expression, and a long form for blocks of code, enclosed in quote ... end. Here is an example of the short form used to quote an arithmetic expression:

julia> ex = :(a+b*c+1)
+(a,*(b,c),1)

julia> typeof(ex)
Expr

julia> ex.head
call

julia> typeof(ans)
Symbol

julia> ex.args
4-element Any Array:
+
a
:(*(b,c))
1

julia> typeof(ex.args[1])
Symbol

julia> typeof(ex.args[2])
Symbol

julia> typeof(ex.args[3])
Expr

julia> typeof(ex.args[4])
Int64


Expressions provided by the parser generally only have symbols, other expressions, and literal values as their args, whereas expressions constructed by Julia code can easily have arbitrary run-time values without literal forms as args. In this specific example, + and a are symbols, *(b,c) is a subexpression, and 1 is a literal 64-bit signed integer. Here’s an example of the longer expression quoting form:

julia> quote
x = 1
y = 2
x + y
end

begin
x = 1
y = 2
+(x,y)
end


When the argument to : is just a symbol, a Symbol object results instead of an Expr:

julia> :foo
foo

julia> typeof(ans)
Symbol


In the context of an expression, symbols are used to indicate access to variables, and when an expression is evaluated, a symbol evaluates to the value bound to that symbol in the appropriate scope (see Variables and Scoping for further details).

### Eval and Interpolation¶

Given an expression object, one can cause Julia to evaluate (execute) it at the top level scope — i.e. in effect like loading from a file or typing at the interactive prompt — using the eval function:

julia> :(1 + 2)
+(1,2)

julia> eval(ans)
3

julia> ex = :(a + b)
+(a,b)

julia> eval(ex)
a not defined

julia> a = 1; b = 2;

julia> eval(ex)
3


Expressions passed to eval are not limited to returning values — they can also have side-effects that alter the state of the top-level evaluation environment:

julia> ex = :(x = 1)
x = 1

julia> x
x not defined

julia> eval(ex)
1

julia> x
1


Here, the evaluation of an expression object causes a value to be assigned to the top-level variable x.

Since expressions are just Expr objects which can be constructed programmatically and then evaluated, one can, from within Julia code, dynamically generate arbitrary code which can then be run using eval. Here is a simple example:

julia> a = 1;

julia> ex = Expr(:call, {:+,a,:b}, Any)
:(+(1,b))

julia> a = 0; b = 2;

julia> eval(ex)
3


The value of a is used to construct the expression ex which applies the + function to the value 1 and the variable b. Note the important distinction between the way a and b are used:

• The value of the variable a at expression construction time is used as an immediate value in the expression. Thus, the value of a when the expression is evaluated no longer matters: the value in the expression is already 1, independent of whatever the value of a might be.
• On the other hand, the symbol :b is used in the expression construction, so the value of the variable b at that time is irrelevant — :b is just a symbol and the variable b need not even be defined. At expression evaluation time, however, the value of the symbol :b is resolved by looking up the value of the variable b.

Constructing Expr objects like this is powerful, but somewhat tedious and ugly. Since the Julia parser is already excellent at producing expression objects, Julia allows “splicing” or interpolation of expression objects, prefixed with $, into quoted expressions, written using normal syntax. The above example can be written more clearly and concisely using interpolation: julia> a = 1; 1 julia> ex = :($a + b)
:(+(1,b))


This syntax is automatically rewritten to the form above where we explicitly called Expr. The use of $for expression interpolation is intentionally reminiscent of string interpolation and command interpolation. Expression interpolation allows convenient, readable programmatic construction of complex Julia expressions. ### Code Generation¶ When a significant amount of repetitive boilerplate code is required, it is common to generate it programmatically to avoid redundancy. In most languages, this requires an extra build step, and a separate program to generate the repetitive code. In Julia, expression interpolation and eval allow such code generation to take place in the normal course of program execution. For example, the following code defines a series of operators on three arguments in terms of their 2-argument forms: for op = (:+, :*, :&, :|, :$)
eval(quote
($op)(a,b,c) = ($op)(($op)(a,b),c) end) end  In this manner, Julia acts as its own preprocessor, and allows code generation from inside the language. The above code could be written slightly more tersely using the : prefix quoting form: for op = (:+, :*, :&, :|, :$)
eval(:(($op)(a,b,c) = ($op)(($op)(a,b),c))) end  This sort of in-language code generation, however, using the eval(quote(...)) pattern, is common enough that Julia comes with a macro to abbreviate this pattern: for op = (:+, :*, :&, :|, :$)
@eval ($op)(a,b,c) = ($op)(($op)(a,b),c) end  The @eval macro rewrites this call to be precisely equivalent to the above longer versions. For longer blocks of generated code, the expression argument given to @eval can be a block: @eval begin # multiple lines end  Interpolating into an unquoted expression is not supported and will cause a compile-time error: julia>$a + b
unsupported or misplaced expression $ ## Macros¶ Macros are the analogue of functions for expression generation at compile time: they allow the programmer to automatically generate expressions by transforming zero or more argument expressions into a single result expression, which then takes the place of the macro call in the final syntax tree. Macros are invoked with the following general syntax: @name expr1 expr2 ... @name(expr1, expr2, ...)  Note the distinguishing @ before the macro name and the lack of commas between the argument expressions in the first form, and the lack of whitespace after @name in the second form. The two styles should not be mixed. For example, the following syntax is different from the examples above; it passes the tuple (expr1, expr2, ...) as one argument to the macro: @name (expr1, expr2, ...)  Before the program runs, this statement will be replaced with the result of calling an expander function for name on the expression arguments. Expanders are defined with the macro keyword: macro name(expr1, expr2, ...) ... end  Here, for example, is the definition of Julia’s @assert macro (see error.jl): macro assert(ex) :($ex ? nothing : error("Assertion failed: ", $(string(ex)))) end  This macro can be used like this: julia> @assert 1==1.0 julia> @assert 1==0 Assertion failed: 1==0  Macro calls are expanded so that the above calls are precisely equivalent to writing: 1==1.0 ? nothing : error("Assertion failed: ", "1==1.0") 1==0 ? nothing : error("Assertion failed: ", "1==0")  That is, in the first call, the expression :(1==1.0) is spliced into the test condition slot, while the value of string(:(1==1.0)) is spliced into the assertion message slot. The entire expression, thus constructed, is placed into the syntax tree where the @assert macro call occurs. Therefore, if the test expression is true when evaluated, the entire expression evaluates to nothing, whereas if the test expression is false, an error is raised indicating the asserted expression that was false. Notice that it would not be possible to write this as a function, since only the value of the condition and not the expression that computed it would be available. The @assert example also shows how macros can include a quote block, which allows for convenient manipulation of expressions inside the macro body. ### Hygiene¶ An issue that arises in more complex macros is that of hygiene. In short, Julia must ensure that variables introduced and used by macros do not accidentally clash with the variables used in code interpolated into those macros. Another concern arises from the fact that a macro may be called in a different module from where it was defined. In this case we need to ensure that all global variables are resolved to the correct module. To demonstrate these issues, let us consider writing a @time macro that takes an expression as its argument, records the time, evaluates the expression, records the time again, prints the difference between the before and after times, and then has the value of the expression as its final value. The macro might look like this: macro time(ex) quote local t0 = time() local val =$ex
local t1 = time()
println("elapsed time: ", t1-t0, " seconds")
val
end
end


Here, we want t0, t1, and val to be private temporary variables, and we want time to refer to the time function in the standard library, not to any time variable the user might have (the same applies to println). Imagine the problems that could occur if the user expression ex also contained assignments to a variable called t0, or defined its own time variable. We might get errors, or mysteriously incorrect behavior.

Julia’s macro expander solves these problems in the following way. First, variables within a macro result are classified as either local or global. A variable is considered local if it is assigned to (and not declared global), declared local, or used as a function argument name. Otherwise, it is considered global. Local variables are then renamed to be unique (using the gensym function, which generates new symbols), and global variables are resolved within the macro definition environment. Therefore both of the above concerns are handled; the macro’s locals will not conflict with any user variables, and time and println will refer to the standard library definitions.

One problem remains however. Consider the following use of this macro:

module MyModule
import Base.@time

time() = ... # compute something

@time time()
end


Here the user expression ex is a call to time, but not the same time function that the macro uses. It clearly refers to MyModule.time. Therefore we must arrange for the code in ex to be resolved in the macro call environment. This is done by “escaping” the expression with the esc function:

macro time(ex)
...
local val = $(esc(ex)) ... end  An expression wrapped in this manner is left alone by the macro expander and simply pasted into the output verbatim. Therefore it will be resolved in the macro call environment. This escaping mechanism can be used to “violate” hygiene when necessary, in order to introduce or manipulate user variables. For example, the following macro sets x to zero in the call environment: macro zerox() esc(:(x = 0)) end function foo() x = 1 @zerox x # is zero end  This kind of manipulation of variables should be used judiciously, but is occasionally quite handy. ### Non-Standard String Literals¶ Recall from Strings that string literals prefixed by an identifier are called non-standard string literals, and can have different semantics than un-prefixed string literals. For example: • E"$100\n" interprets escape sequences but does no string interpolation
• r"^\s*(?:#|$)" produces a regular expression object rather than a string • b"DATA\xff\u2200" is a byte array literal for [68,65,84,65,255,226,136,128]. Perhaps surprisingly, these behaviors are not hard-coded into the Julia parser or compiler. Instead, they are custom behaviors provided by a general mechanism that anyone can use: prefixed string literals are parsed as calls to specially-named macros. For example, the regular expression macros is just the following: macro r_str(p) Regex(p) end  That’s all. This macro says that the literal contents of the string literal r"^\s*(?:#|$)" should be passed to the @r_str macro and the result of that expansion should be placed in the syntax tree where the string literal occurs. In other words, the expression r"^\s*(?:#|$)" is equivalent to placing the following object directly into the syntax tree: Regex("^\\s*(?:#|\$)")


Not only is the string literal form shorter and far more convenient, but it is also more efficient: since the regular expression is compiled and the Regex object is actually created when the code is compiled, the compilation occurs only once, rather than every time the code is executed. Consider if the regular expression occurs in a loop:

for line = lines
m = match(r"^\s*(?:#|$)", line) if m.match == nothing # non-comment else # comment end end  Since the regular expression r"^\s*(?:#|$)" is compiled and inserted into the syntax tree when this code is parsed, the expression is only compiled once instead of each time the loop is executed. In order to accomplish this without macros, one would have to write this loop like this:

re = Regex("^\\s*(?:#|\$)") for line = lines m = match(re, line) if m.match == nothing # non-comment else # comment end end  Moreover, if the compiler could not determine that the regex object was constant over all loops, certain optimizations might not be possible, making this version still less efficient than the more convenient literal form above. Of course, there are still situations where the non-literal form is more convenient: if one needs to interpolate a variable into the regular expression, has to take this more verbose approach; in cases where the regular expression pattern itself is dynamic, potentially changing upon each loop iteration, a new regular expression object must be constructed on each iteration. The vast majority of use cases, however, one does not construct regular expressions dynamically, depending on run-time data. In this majority of cases, the ability to write regular expressions as compile-time values is, well, invaluable. The mechanism for user-defined string literals is deeply, profoundly powerful. Not only are Julia’s non-standard literals implemented using it, but also the command literal syntax (echo "Hello,$person") is implemented with the following innocuous-looking macro:

macro cmd(str)
:(cmd_gen(\$shell_parse(str)))
end


Of course, a large amount of complexity is hidden in the functions used in this macro definition, but they are just functions, written entirely in Julia. You can read their source and see precisely what they do — and all they do is construct expression objects to be inserted into your program’s syntax tree.